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Attached files. Login or register to post comments. Noa Rodman Dec 18 Noa Rodman Mar 27 Noa Rodman Aug 18 Anyone on Twitter? Mutu: rethinking our radical media. From this point onward, Derrida rapidly became a major presence in the academic and intellectual world.
In he made his first significant appearance in the United States at the Johns Hopkins University International Colloquium on Critical Languages and the Science of Man, a conference which marked America's growing interest in the work of French theorists and philosophers. It was a significant moment in American intellectual history insofar as the conference was intended to introduce structuralist thought to the United States.
Derrida's paper, "Le structure, le signe et le jeu dans le discours des sciences humaines," effectively dismantled structuralist thought at the very moment when it was being introduced to the American academy. Throughout the remainder of the decade, he published widely and attracted increasing recognition. Each of these books constitutes a significant contribution to philosophical thought, and by the end of the decade Derrida had already assured himself a prominent position in the history of Western philosophy. The s began with a series of publications in which Derrida addressed the thought of such philosophical luminaries as Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, and Austin.
In Derrida began teaching at Yale University. His work, along with that of his colleagues and friends Paul de Man and J. Hillis Miller, rapidly became renowned throughout America under the banner of "deconstruction. Throughout the s Derrida also became increasingly active in social and political projects. Intended to secure the place of philosophy in secondary and university education at a time when the government was attempting to reduce or eliminate philosophy altogether, GREPH articulated the persistent relevance of the study of philosophy for contemporary society and culture.
In June of Derrida finally gave his official thesis defense at the Sorbonne. Derrida continued his active intervention in various social and political spheres during this period. He participated in events organized against Apartheid and in support of Nelson Mandela. He also co-founded with Jean-Pierre Vernant the Jan Hus Association to assist dissident Czech intellectuals and conducted a clandestine seminar in Prague. During his visit to Prague in , he was observed closely by the police and eventually arrested on a fabricated charge of "production and trafficking of drugs.
During the mids Derrida became associated with the University of California, Irvine. Following the death of his friend Paul de Man, he gave a series of commemorative lectures entitled "Memoires for Paul de Man" as the Wellek Library Lectures. In he became a tenured professor at UCI, as did J. Hillis Miller. For the remainder of the decade, his academic and political activites, as well as his publishing, continued at a steady pace. Throughout the s and s Jacques Derrida continued to publish and teach widely. As his fame and notoriety increased, the number of conferences and colloquia in which he participated multiplied.
Furthermore, he held teaching appointments at numerous universities across the globe and received honorary doctorates from ten institutions throughout the United States and Europe. His publications appeared with great frequency and were translated into numerous languages. In , he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, and died a year later on October 8, in a Paris hospital. This collection comprises manuscripts, typescripts, recordings, photographs, and an extensive clippings file documenting the professional career of Jacques Derrida and providing comprehensive documentation of his activities as a student, teacher, scholar, and public figure.
In , it was decided that the original documents in the Jacques Derrida papers that had been restricted for preservation purposes should be reintegrated into the collection due to the high number of demands to view the original documents, as well as the inadequacy of the surrogate use copies available for access. Upon review of the material, it have determined that these documents are not in any danger of deterioration from general, safe handling.
Illustrations, photographs, and brittle paper, however, were placed in a Mylar sleeves for protection. Use copies were disposed of by special collections staff, and the original documents housed boxes were physically moved to replace them. Boxes no long exist in MS-C, an there is a gap between Physical Description: no content. This series contains manuscript materials relating to Derrida's work as a student. The work covers a wide range of topics and extends from his early days in preparatory classes in Algeria up to his independent research on Husserl. While the series does not represent all of the work that Derrida produced while he was a student, it contains all that is known to be extant.
None of the material has been published. The series has been organized in four subseries. Almost all of the material was written in conjunction with a particular course of study. Subject matter includes philosophy, literature, history, and English. The arrangement of the subseries is largely chronological, with materials organized by the educational institutions at which Derrida studied.
The content of the materials reflects his training as a philosopher, but also includes studies in psychology and literature. Many of the materials include marginal comments by the professor for whom they were written. Course by Brehier on Berkeley. Various materials. Much of the material is undated and probably was created during Derrida's periods of intensive research on Husserl at Louvain in and at Harvard University in The majority of the items are reading notes.
Le « choix de l'organe » en psychosomatique : une question périmée ?
Although some of this material chronologically overlaps with that in subseries 1. Various notes related to Husserl. It is quite possible that some of the material pertains more directly to Derrida's earliest days as a teacher in Le Mans. Derrida's original order for this material has been maintained. Bacon undated. Hobbes undated.
Hugo Grotius undated. Locke undated. Montaigne undated. Montesquieu undated. Max Scheler Boutroux undated. The series documents almost every seminar that Derrida has ever taught. In the majority of cases, the seminar is fully written out in either manuscript or typescript and is supplemented with a variety of notes and photocopies. This series is arranged chronologically, beginning with several short, undated seminars that are probably from Derrida's first years of teaching. Folder dates indicate the year in which a seminar was given, but within the folder seminar material may precede or post-date the year of the seminar.
Original page groupings have been indicated in notes within some folders when that grouping wasn't already apparent, and when Derrida made an effort to single out the pages as a group by, for example, clipping them together or wrapping a page around the group. Where there are clearly distinct versions of a seminar or when there are virtually identical copies of seminar materials, these materials have been so noted. Any seminar notes or accompanying texts typically are housed either in a folder preceding the rest of the seminar material, or with the first copy of the seminar.
Where there are several copies of a seminar, the first copy is usually more marked and obviously used. For seminars given during more than one year, material is separated chronologically whenever possible; when that distinction could not be clearly made, all material is placed under one date with a note of reference at the other date. The locations where seminars were given are noted below when they are known for certain; more often, the schools at which Derrida taught during the seminar year are given.
See the course for material. See the undated seminar on "Le Mal" for additional material that may be related. Derrida taught at the Sorbonne. Physical Description: 2 folders. Also given at the ENS. Anselme came from material for the course "Essence Existence" but seems to belong here.
See also the undated seminar on "Le Mal. Note that the first section contains a bibliography for the course. Derrida taught at the ENS. Derrida taught at Johns Hopkins in Paris. Material was later used for a course given at Yale, where it was titled both "La Chose Heidegger and the 'other' of Heidegger " and "Legs de Freud. Derrida taught at the ENS and at Yale. Derrida taught at Yale in Paris. Includes 2 sessions possibly revised as "La Chaire vacante.
See Series 3 for material. Includes questions that begin to develop "geist" in Heidegger. For an index, see the 18 Dec. Version 1 and copies Physical Description: 8 folders. Version 2, English version and copies Physical Description: folders. The Cornell version may have been used for a conference. Derrida may have also taught at the City University of New York.
Derrida notes that the City University of New York seminar was brief. Given as the University of Chicago Carpenter Lectures. Physical Description: 14 folders. Includes manuscript of an untitled lecture. Includes transcript of 31 Jan. This series consists of all material related to Derrida's published work. By far the largest series in the collection, it contains drafts, notes, photocopies, proofs, and offprints covering almost every work that Derrida has published. It also contains material for interviews, conferences, international colloquiua, and exhibits, much of which is related to Derrida's published work.
Since much of the material lacks a specific date, and since titles often represent several years of work for example, a draft, a few conference versions, proofs, and an offprint , the series is arranged alphabetically by published title. For the same reasons, folders in this series do not contain inclusive dates. Original page groupings have been indicated in notes within some folders when that grouping wasn't already apparent and when Derrida made an effort to single out the pages as a group by, for example, clipping them together or wrapping a page around the group.
Versions of a text are noted when distinguishable; however, the version numbers do not necessarily indicate the chronological progression of a text. In some instances a chronology was impossible to discern. Interviews explicitly related to a publication title are filed under the title of the publication; all other interviews are filed as such. Texts with no definite title and that are related to the Group de Recherches sur l'Enseignement philosophique GREPH are filed under GREPH; other untitled texts are filed under an appropriate title substitute, such as a conference title.
Correspondence related to a title is filed with that title, while correspondence unconnected to any title is filed alphabetically under "Letter to Derrida marked several of these cards with a symbol, and he also marked the manuscript with the same symbol to indicate where the text on the card belongs in the manuscript. Notes, version 1, photos.
Version 2. Version 3. Version 4. Acts of literature Physical Description: 2 folders. Acts of religion Physical Description: 2 folders. Nick Royle, which is from a conference "Deconstruction in Finland" in Tampere. Version 1. Version 2 copy. English version 1.
Women Psychoanalysts in France
English version 2. English version 2 copy. See also Mal d'archive. Proofs, copy-edited Physical Description: 3 folders. Note indicates that this material is a transcription. Was a collaborative seminar titled "L'Ecriture. Version 5 was for a conference. Version 1, version 2, version 2 copy.
Version 3, version 4, version 5. Notes, version 1. Notes, version 2. Conference program, version 4, version 4 copy. UCI version, correspondence, Derrida Archive list. Salerno version, correspondence, notes. Murcia version, notes, conference program. English versions 1 and 2. English versions 3 amd 4. Versions 2 and 3.
Version 5. Version 6, notes. English proofs. Images and covers. Front matter, "Envois". Loose pages. Front matter, "Envois" copy 1. Front matter, "Envois" copy 2 Physical Description: 3 folders. Proofs 1: front matter, "Envois". Proofs 1: "Envois". Proofs 2: front matter, "Envois". Proofs 2: "Envois". Proofs 3. Proofs 4: front matter, "Envois". Proofs 4: "Envois". Proofs 4: "Du tout". English publication correspondence. Proofs of Spanish translation Physical Description: 4 folders.
See "Notecards" for more possible material. Versions 1, 2, 3. Proofs 1. Proofs 2. Proofs 4. Material was originally titled "La Linguistique de Rousseau. See "Les Langages et les institutions de la philosophie" for an offprint. See also Points de suspension for additional proofs. See also Istrice2. Notes, versions Versions Questions, versions Proofs, English offprint. Version 1 notes and manuscript. Version 2 pages Version 3 pages Version 4 pages Version 5 pages and notes.
Version 6 pages and notes. Version 7 pages and notes. Version 8 pages Version 9 pages Version 10 pages and 2 copies. Version 11 pages Version Version 12 copy 1. Version 12 copy 2. Version 12 copy 3. Version 12 copy 4. Proofs 1 from Jacques Derrida. Proofs 1 from proofreader. Proofs 1 from Geoffrey Bennington.
Photo text and photo proofs. Proofs 3 Physical Description: 2 folders. Notes and version. Oversize proofs. Derrida refused publication. Version 5, English offprint. Proofs of original publication. English version. See also "Heidegger, l'enfer des philosophes" for a related interview. English proofs and version given at the University of Jerusalem in June Also given at Cornell in and in March in Paris at a Heidegger colloquium. See also "Aristote" for related material. Version 3 used for the colloquium. Notes, version 1 and copy, version 2.
Versions , English offprint. De l'esprit: Heidegger et la question General note Given at a colloquium Mar. Versions and notes.
- Women Psychoanalysts in France.
- The Rivers of Eden;
- 30 Days To A New You.
- Guide to the Jacques Derrida Papers MS.C.001;
- Risk Management Technologies: With Logic and Probabilistic Models: 20 (Topics in Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality).
Several versions. Proofs 2 Physical Description: 3 folders. Proofs 3 Physical Description: 3 folders. Proofs 4 Physical Description: 2 folders. Discussion is at University of Miami before a conference. Material renamed "Desceller 'la vieille neuve langue'. Proofs, notes, pages. Translated by Mary Ann Caws. French versions and proofs. French conference version. Proofs of Portuguese translation. See Points de suspension for additional proofs. Material is from talk given at the Centre Georges Pompidou 15 Nov. Also given at Williamsburg. Also given in French 26 and 28 Oct. See also Acts of Literature for Attridge introduction to selection.
English conference version. English conference version, with thanks to Mark Taylor. Articles, notes, offprint. See also Marges - de la philosophie for additional proofs. Notes and text. Version 1, conference version. Proofs 1 and 2. Transcription of interview that followed the conference. Letter of response. Versions 1 and 2, notes. Dor, The Clinical Lacan trans. Fairfield , Edited by J. Fairfield, New York, Other Press, For the reader's guide to Ecrits see: J.
For detailed, yet controversial account. Roudinesco, Jacques Lacon trans. For a brief chronology, see: D. The most complete Lacan-bibliography is: J. L For summaries of Lacan's works and listings of secondary sources, see: M. Tomiche : New Brun'! For the Wundtian principle, see: S. See: J. Lacan, Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis 1 trans. Baltimore M D-London. The Johns Hopkin'! University Press. Lacan, EcrilS; A Seleclion 1 trans. Tomaselli, Tran'! Lacan, The Seminar. Book 1 ; Freud's Papers on Technique trans. Forrester , Edited by J. Introduction No survey of Lacanian terms would be complete without a discussion of jouissance.
But while jouissance is often rendered simply. During the course of Lacan's teaching, jouissance is used in a series of different contexts, in each of which it acquires a different nuance. The first step, then, in examining this term, must be to examine these different contexts in order to unravel these various nuances. Only then will it be possible to examine and assess the clinical and cultural applications of the term.
The Various Nuances of Jouissance in Lacan's Work It is perhaps surprising, given the importance that jouissance comes to acquire in Lacan's later work, that the term does not appear at all in his early writings. There is no mention of it in the pre-war writings, and in fact it does not make its first appearance until Lacan's first public seminar, which he gave in the year From then onwards it takes on an ever greater significance until, in the 's, it is so crucial to Lacan's thinking that, were one to single out the most important Lacanian concept, the only contenders would be jouissance and the object a.
In the course of this rise to prominence, the term jouissance does not retain a stable meaning. On the contrary, like most Lacanian terms, its resonances and articulations shift dramatically over the course of his teaching. One way to examine these shifts would be to read them as the progressive unfolding of a single concept; this is how Nestor Braunstein presents jouissance in his informative work on the topic. In what follows, therefore, I have simply sketched some of the different nuances of jouissance as they emerge at different sites in Lacan's texts, without trying to reconcile them in some masterful synthesis.
It is not that such syntheses are necessarily wrong, since one attraction of Lacan's teaching is that it invites the reader to construct such syntheses for himself or herself. In opting to discuss jouissance in a fragmentary way, I hope to leave the task of synthesis up to the reader, as well as providing the grounds for criticising the syntheses that are produced.
Jouissance as pleasure Before Lacan, the term jouissance did not figure in the terminological apparatus of psychoanalysis; the closest German equivalent GenufJ does not form part of Freud's theoretical vocabulary, nor had any French psychoanalyst assigned any special value to the term. Lacan himself attributes the notion of jouissance to Hegel, but such a remark must be qualified by the fact that, whenever Lacan refers to Hegel, it is always Kojeve's Hegel he has in mind. Thus, the Master no longer needs to make any effort to satisfy his natural desires. Now, to preserve oneself in Nature without fighting against it is to live in Genufj, in Enjoyment.
And the enjoyment that one obtains without making any effort is Lust, Pleasure. Here, the term is-used exclusively in the context of discussions of the dialectic of the master and the slave, and seems to denote no more than a form of pleasure. Thus, when the master puts the slave to work, the slave produces objects which only the master can possess and enjoy: Indeed, beginning with the mythical situation [of the master and the slave], an action is undertaken, and establishes the relation between pleasure Uouissance] and labour.
A law is imposed upon the slave, that he should satisfy the desire and the pleasure UouissanceJ of the other. Jouissance as orgasm If the sexual connotations of jouissance are absent from Lacan's initial use of the term in the seminars of 1 and 1 , they become explicit a few years later, when Lacan uses the term to refer to the pleasures of masturbation. In other words, jouissance is equated simply with the pleasurable sensation of orgasm, and thus still located in the register of need and biological satisfaction.
In 1 for example, in a paper on feminine sexuality, Lacan speaks of frigidity as a lack of 'clitoral j ouissance. Thus Lacan can gloss j ouissance simply as ' orgasm' in 1 and play on this meaning overtly in his remarks on Bernini's Saint Theresa in 1 The distinction between jouissance and desire is first developed in the seminar on the formations of the unconscious , in the sessions of March 1 His most explicit statement on the matter comes in the lecture of 26 March 1 , when he claims that 'the subject does not simply satisfy a desire, he enjoys Uouit] desiring, and this is an essential dimension of his jouissance.
Rather, desire lacks an object that could satisfy it, and is therefore to be conceived of as a movement which is pursued endlessly, simply for the enjoyment Gouissance of pursuing it. Jouissance is thus lifted out of the register of the satisfaction of a biological need , and becomes instead the paradoxical satisfaction which is found in pursuing an eternally unsatistied desire. These first remarks on the relationship of jouissance and desire suggest that jouissance is what sustains desire, since it is the enjoyment 6 DYLAN EVANS of desiring for desire's sake that keeps one desiring in the absence of satisfaction.
Later, however, the relationship between desire and jouissance is presented differently. In the seminar on anxiety, for example, when Lacan states that 'desire presents itself as a will to jouissance,' this seems to posit jouissance as the terminus of desire, as that which desire aims at. In the first account, the two coexist: if the subject enjoys desiring, then jouissance sustains desire.
In the second account, in which desire aims at jouissance, desire is predicated on a lack of jouissance, since one can only desire what one does not have. In the later works of Lacan, it is the latter account which is predominant. Lacan develops this opposition in , in the context of his seminar The Ethics of Psychoanalysis. In masochism, pain is a means to pleasure; pleasure is taken in the very fact of suffering itself, so that it becomes difficult to distinguish pleasure from pain.
With jouissance, on the other hand, pleasure and pain remain distinct; no pleasure is taken in the pain itself, but the pleasure cannot be obtained without paying the price of suffering. It is thus a kind of deal in which 'pleasure and pain are presented as a single packet. Pleasure now signifies on the one hand the sensation of pleasure and on the other hand the pleasure principle. Now, it should be clear that whereas pleasure in the former sense is synonymous with the earlier meaning ofjouissance, pleasure in the latter sense is actually opposed to the later meaning of jouissance.
If the man in Kant's example is governed by the pleasure principle, he will not pay the price of death simply in order to have a brief sexual encounter with the lady of his dreams. Or, in Lacan's words : ' it is pleasure that sets the limits on jouissance. There are those who would indeed pay the price of death in order to spend one night with the woman of their dreams.
The deal of jouissance is not always rejected. Kant uses this example of the man faced with the choice of paying the price of death for sex to illustrate the hypothetical imperative, which precedes his discussion of the true ethical decision. Only an act which disregards the normal calculations of weighing up potential pleasure against potential pain can be called ethical. If this is now transposed to Lacan's opposition between the pleasure principle and jouissance, the pleasure pr inciple would correspond to Kant's pathological calculation ofpleasure and pain, whereas jouissance would be located on the side of the ethical , 'given that jouissance implies precisely the acceptance of death.
Is it not precisely the fact that the pleasure principle does not hold universal sway? The jouissance of the Other In the previous section it was seen how the meaning of jouissance shifts, in , from a simple equation with pleasure, to a deal in which pleasure and pain are presented ' in a single packet. At the risk of oversimplifying things, it could be argued that, after 1 , when Lac an speaks of the jouissance of the subject it is the newer meaning which is relevant, whereas his discussion of the jouissance of the Other invokes the older equation of jouissance with pleasure.
In other words , the jouissance of the Other is not marked by that element of pain and suffering that characterises the jouissance of the subject. This reading is borne out by some remarks that Lacan makes on a common clinical phenomenon: the widespread illusion that there are other people who are 'not fucked up like me, ' other families which are not beset by the dark forces that mar one's own, asymptomatic subjects who are c ompletely happy, who do not ask questions, and who sleep soundly in their beds. Lacan refers to this mirage as a jouissance which is only accessible to the Other, which would seem to confirm the idea that, when associated with the Other, j ouissance harks back to the earlier equation with pleasure and lacks the connotation of suffering.
S ince this leaves no space for the child, the child attempts to inscribe a lack in the Other, by seeking to introduce, for example, a note of anxiety in the mother, perhaps by screaming or refusing to eat. If unsuccessful that is, if the child's screams do not perturb the mother's enjoyment at all , the child will not be able to elaborate its own desire; desire and jouissance are here clearly opposed.
If successful, however, this proves to the child that the Other is not complete, that the mother's jouissance is not superabundant. Even then, the memory of the first impression of the mother's complete jouissance will persist in the illusion of a superabundant jouissance accessible only to the Other. Feminine jouissance The remarks in the previous section implied that the belief that the j ouissance of the Other is somehow more complete than our own is simply an illusion. However, there are moments in Lacan's teachings which suggest that this is not always the case, that there really is an Other whose jouissance is greater.
These suggestions emerge when the Other is identified with the Other sex, which for Lacan is always woman. This idea first emerges in the seminar on anxiety, when Lacan states with Tiresias that: ' it is women who enjoy UouissentJ. Their jouissance is greater. Lacan had already used the term jouissance in his discussions of feminine sexuality in , marking what would become a constant conjunction. The distinction does not therefore affect the nature of jouissance as such, which is held by Lacan to be phallic: 'Jouissance, insofar as it is sexual, is phal lic, , which means that it does not relate to the Other as such.
In the seminar of , however, Lacan does speak of feminine j ouissance as a qualitatively different form. But beyond this, very little can be said about it. The image which he points to in his discussion is that of Bernini's Saint Theresa, about to be pierced by the golden spear of the angel. As is clear from Saint Theresa's own description of the event, this moment of mystical ecstasy is strongly suggestive of orgasmic enjoyment, and Lacan remarks in Seminar XX that one has only to look at the statue to realise that Saint Theresa is coming.
The j ouissance of the body S ince in Lacan's discourse the Other designates not only the Other sex, but also the body, it is hardly surprising that Lacan links the j ouissance of the Other not only with femininity but also with the body. When Lacan first introduces the idea of a j ouissance beyond the phallus, he immediately specifies it as a 'jouissance of the body. This operation of drainage is what psychoanalysis designates by the term castration.
Throughout Freud's work we find the idea that in order to enter into society, the subject must give something up. This 'something' which the subject must renounce is described variously as 'the sense of omnipotence' or a 'piece of instinctual satisfaction. In Lacan's discussion of sacrifice, however, he provides a critique of the utilitarian model of society implicit in Freud's account. On the contrary, the sacrificed jouissance collects in the superego whence it can return in the form of evil. Jouissance and language To speak of the jouissance trapped in the symptom is to signal another important shift in Lacan's discourse, from the symptom as a linguistic phenomenon to something that can no longer be reduced entirely to language.
Lacan had begun to move towards this view in the early 1 's, as is evident from his remark in 1 that the symptom, unlike acting out, does not call for interpretation, since it is, in itself, not a call to the Other but a pure jouissance addressed to no one. It is no longer simply a case of "a parle it speaks ; it is now also necessary to state that "a jouit it enjoys.
In developing the concept ofjouissance, Lacan rebuts such a criticism, by pointing to a powerful force beyond language. This question can be answered in a number of ways. On the one hand, it can be pointed out that castration, the operation by which jouissance is drained away from the body, is primarily a symbolic operation of language. However, this still leaves the question of what to do with that element of the symptom that cannot be interpreted, that kernel of jouissance that cannot be drained away.
In other words, what can one do with the sinthome? Jouissance is no longer simply a force beyond language; it is now also a force within language. The Clinical Applications of the Concept of Jouissance Having sketched the various meanings of the concept of jouissance in Lacan's work, I shall now examine some of its clinical applications. However, before doing so, it is worth commenting on the division between theory and clinical practice that this approach implies. As should be clear from the preceding discussion of the development of the concept of j ouissance, theoretical and practical concerns are constantly interwoven in Lacan's work in such a way as to make them impossible to separate.
One example is the way that, as noted above, the concept answers a theoretical question 'Why does the symptom persist after interpretation? To deal first with the concept of jouissance and then with its clinical applications might be seen as lending support to the erroneous division between theory and practice on which this criticism is based. On the other hand, precisely because this misconception does exist, the clinical relevance of Lacanian concepts must be spelled out here in black and white, under a separate heading 'The clinic' , lest the Anglo-American reader miss the practical import of Lacan's work.
Frigidity Given the sexual connotations of the term, it is hardly surprising that when Lacan first speaks of jouissance in the context of the clinic it is in relation to the phenomenon of frigidity. In other words, whereas for Freud castration affects the woman and provokes frigidity via envy of the un-castrated man, in Lacan's account castration bears primarily on the man, and, rather than provoking frigidity, it is precisely the woman's acceptance of his castration that allows her to enjoy sexual intercourse.
This 1 account of what Genevieve Morel aptly calls the 'feminine conditions of jouissance' clearly antedates the opposition between jouissance and pleasure whi. Jouissance is thus still linked to the real, and conceived primarily in biological terms, and thus frigidity or lack of jouissance can be defined by Lacan in another paper from the same year as 'a lack in the satisfaction proper to the sexual need.
Now that Lacan has specified that in addition to the universal phallic form of jouissance there is another specifically feminine form, the absence of the former in a woman cannot be taken to imply the absence of the latter. And furthermore, given that the latter, 'supplementary' form of jouissance is marked by ineffability, it follows that if a woman complains of a lack of enjoyment this must not always be taken at face value; it may be that she experiences that other form of j ouissance, of which she knows nothing : 'If it was simply that she experiences it and knows nothing of it, then we would be able to cast considerable doubt 16 DYLAN EVANS on this notorious frigidity.
Anxiety and psychosis Besides frigidity, the concept of j ouissance also sheds light on another clinical phenomenon : anxiety. In one of his later seminars, Lacan remarks that anxiety is that which exists in the interior of the body when the body is overcome by jouissance. This may be seen especially clearly in certain cases of psychosis. As a result, excessive quantities of jouissance constantly threaten to overwhelm the psychotic subject in the form of anx iety, although the way that this occurs differs according to the form of psychosis in question.
For the schizophrenic, jouissance is primarily a bodily phenomenon. One schizophrenic patient of mine described a terrifying incident in which this is clearly illustrated. For one whole day she was pinned to the floor of her apartment by an invisible force which crushed down on top of her. This somatic hallucination was accompanied by the most intense form of anxiety, which she desperately wanted to release 'by piercing something.
The Other's j ouissance then takes the form of a persecution directed at the subject. For example, the Other may be represented as the CIA , which the subject imagines to be sending out agents to watch his or her every move, note down his or her words, etc. The paranoiac is thus the object of the Other's enjoyment, his or her 'complement. Sadism and the superego The concept of the jouissance of the Other is not only relevant for the clinic of psychosis; it is also very important in understanding the clinic or perhaps the non-clinic of perversion.
In his essay entitled Kant with Sade, Lacan proposes that the sadist sees himself as acting, not for his own jouissance, but for the jouissance of the Other. Unlike the psychotic, who is the ob. The pervert sees himself as a neutral tool carrying out the 'will-to-enjoy' volonte-de-.
For there is nothing that inhibits orgasm more easily than the suspicion that one's partner demands that one come. Jouissance and the neurotic symptom Lacan's discussions of frigidity, anxiety. But the clinical relevance of the concept is certainly not limited to such areas; indeed. In many ways. Why do people usually come to see an analyst?
There is a demand for the analyst to alleviate their pain. But the moment the analyst begins to intervene. It now becomes necessary to expose the enj oyment hidden in the symptom before the subject will let go of it. For this reason. These other forms of release are provided by the signifying material that is generated in the course of free association. The punishment involves the woman being tied up while a pot of rats is placed upside down on her buttocks.
I could only interpret it as one of horror at pleasure of his own of which he himself was unaware. Like j ouissance, it is 'composite , ' a paradox ical mixture 6f horror and pleasure. But only the horror is conscious, while the element of pleasure is hidden from the Rat Man's awareness. The preceding survey of the clinical applications of the concept of jouissance is certainly not exhaustive; reasons of space have meant that other , equally interesting clinical phenomena on which the concept of j ouissance throws light such as sexual jealousy have had to be left aside.
The Cultural Applications of the Concep t of Jouissance To speak of the cultural 'applications' of any psychoanalytic concept raises questions as complex as, though different from, those discussed above in relation to the separation of theoretical and clinical matters. Lacan himself distrusted the notion of 'applied psychoanalysis , ' writing that: ' [P]sychoanalysis is only applied , in the proper sense of the term, as a treatment, and thus to a subject who speaks and listens.
Perhaps it is better to speak, in such cases, of the cultural implications of psychoanalysis rather than of its applications, as the former term avoids the idea of psychoanalytic theory as a metadiscourse which is implicit in the latter. Given this important caveat, how might we proceed to define the eultural implications of j ouissance? Lacan himself opened up one possible avenue for answering this question in a question and answer session televised in Lacan replies by remarking that there is something peculiarly disordered about the contemporary organisation of jouissance.
Lacan does not elaborate much on these assumptions. According to Lacan. On the one hand. This recalls Lacan's earlier remarks about the common illusion that the jouissance of the Other is untainted by the note of pain which marks the jouissance of the subject. Lacan goes on to remark how the same logic of envy impels us to define the Other as 'underdeveloped. In Freudian terms. In Lacanian terms, different cultural groups have different ways of collectively organising their jouissance.
Given Freud's remark about the renunciation of instinctual satisfaction as a sacrificial offering, it could be argued that religion is one maj or way in which jouissance is collectively structured. It might then be possible to speak of a Catholic mode of j ouissance, or a Hindu mode, and so on. Lacan argues that in the present social situation, in which our jouissance is 'going off the track, ' a multicultural society leads inevitably to a rise in racism. Racism, as a hatred of difference, is thus founded on the kernel of this difference; the fact that the Other takes his jouissance in a way different from ours.
All the arguments employed by racists to justify their hatred ultimately focus on the way in which the Other obtains some plus-de-jouir that he does not deserve; either he does not work, or he works too hard, or he eats smelly food or has too much sex, etc. Thus true intolerance, concludes Miller, is nothing other than intolerance of the Other 's jouissance. The same theme is further developed by S lavoj Z izek in relation to the concept of the nation.
Z itek reads the ethn i c moment of the 'nation' as the object a, the leftover , of the universalising concept of democracy. In other words, democracy inevitably produces a surplus, without which it cannot exist, and which is identified by Z itek with the fact of the nation-state. Nationalism thus becomes 'the privileged domain of the eruption of enjoyment into the social field.
In short, what gets on our nerves , what really bothers us about the ' other, ' is the pecul iar way he organizes his enjoyment. But the importance of psychoanalysis for cultural theory is certainly not limited to its incidence in social and political thought; there is also a long tradition of using psychoanalytic concepts to analyse works of art and literature. An instructive example of the use of Lacanian theory to examine film is provided by Parveen Adams in her essay on Michael Powell's Peeping Tom, which tells the story of a young man, Mark Lewis, who films women as he kills them.
Such a comparison between the pleasure of the spectator and the enjoyment of the pervert is certainly not new to film theory; it has even become somewhat of a cliche. However, it is precisely this comparison that Adams objects to, on the grounds that it 'fails to distinguish between a pleasure and the question of jouissance.
The jouissance of the perverse Mark Lewis leads him eventually to his death; the framing of certain key images in the film puts the spectator in quite a different position, a position from which a safe pleasure may be derived. JOUiSSANCE 23 Whereas Adams shows how the concept of jouissance can be used to critique a commonplace of contemporary film theory, Joan Copjec uses the concept to draw a structural distinction between two types of film that are often confused : the crime film and film noir.
In the crime film, Copjec argues, the criminals are still ruled by the Other even when they try to cheat it, whereas in film noir , the Other is suspended altogether. Since the reign of the Other is that which protects the subject from jouissance, the film noir hero can be conceived of as ' a man who enj oys too much. Conclusion From Kantian ethics to mystical experience, from frigidity to racism: judging by the range of the contexts in which it appears, the concept of j ouissance is certainly versatile.
Indeed, it could be argued that no other Lacanian concept is quite so versatile, with the exception of the object a. This versatility may be partially accounted for by the various nuances which the term acquires during the course of Lacan' s teaching. However , with such semantic inflation there is the risk of devaluation. Thus the critic might object that, if the term jouissance can be used in so many ways, it becomes so general and vague as to lose all value.
This objection can be countered by pointing to the various qualifiers that can be attached to the term jouissance phallic or feminine, of the Other , of the body, etc. My thanks go to Joan Copjec and Dany Nobu. Lacan in Contexts. MIT, 1 99 1. Even this , however, turns out to have a curious twist, for it has since been pointed out, for example by Macey, that the word 'jouissance' does in fact figure in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary.
One might therefore argue that the use of the tenn jouissance by anglophone Lacanian. H owever, this observation has passed most English-speaking Lacanian. See: D. Macey , Lacan in Contexts. Book I: Freud's Papers em Technique 1 trans. M iller. Cambridge , Cambridge University Press , 1 98 8. Braunstein, L a jouissance: u n concept lacanien 1 Paris , Point H ors Ligne, 1 See : J. La logique dufantasme 1 , unpublished. Kojeve, Introduction to the Reoding of Hegel 1 1 ] tran.
Book I: Freud's Papers on Technique, 0. Forrester's decision to tramllate jouissance as pleasure in this passage. Tomaselli, notes J. M iller, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press , 1 , p. Lacan, La psychanalyse et son enseignement 1 , Ecrits , Paris. M iller, Paris , du Seuil, 1 , p. Lacan, Propos directifs pour un congres sur la sexualite feminine , Ecrits, o. Rose Eds. Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the ecolefreudienne.
Essai sur "l'herméneutique" stalinienne - Slavoj Zizek
York NY-London. Lacan, The Signification of the Phallus 1 trans. Ecrits: A Selection, London, Tavistock, 1 , p. M iller, Paris, du Seuil, 1 , p. Rose , in J. Porter , Edited by J. See : F. Macey , Lacan in Contexts, o. Bataille, H istoire de l 'erotisme 1 My translation. Le Seminaire V, Les formations de l 'inconscient 1 ,. Lacan, Le Seminaire X, L 'angoisse, o. Ask him whether he would not control his passion if, in front of the house where he has this opportunity , a gallows were erected on which he would be hanged immediately after gratifying his lust.
See : S. Freud, Beyond the Pleasure Principle 1 g. Lacan, o. Le Sbninaire X, L 'angoisse, 3 3. Lacan, Le Seminaire V, Lesformations de l 'inconscient, o. See : D. Silvestre, Chercher l a femme , Ornicar? Lacan in Contexts , o. God and the Jouissance o f Ti e Woman, o. Macey, 3 5. Lacan, 3 6. Lacan, The two ' sexes ' are here understood by Lacan in logical rather than biological terms. Cases of biological men who follow this logic and thereby have access to feminine jouissance may be rare , but Lacan does cite one example: Saint John of the Cross.
Lacan, God and the Jouissance of Tie Woman, o. Lacan, God and the Jouissance of Tie Woman, He conceives of a mythical organ called the 'lamella' which is ' subtracted from the living being by virtue of the fact that it is subject to the cycle of sexed reproduction. Sheridan , Edited by J. Miller, Paris, du Seuil, , p.
Lacan, context of a theoretical development on the dialectic of frustration. Indeed, in the diagrams of the four discourses which Lacan present'! Le Seminaire X. L 'angois. Le Seminaire. Le sinthome Livre XX. Ibid p. A Love Letter trans. Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the er. Guiding Remarks for a Congress on Feminine Sexua lity. See: G. M orel. La Causefreudienne. See : G. Conditions feminines de jouissance. God and the Jouissance of Tie Woman, O. The Signification of the Phallus , o. Memoirs of My Nervou. Weber, Cambridge MA-London. Harvard University Press , ; S. Lacan, Kant with Sade trans.
For the voyeur. What the sadist longs for is to hear the sound of his victim 's screams , and thus his jouissance is summed up in the phrase 'I hear. Lacan, Kant with Sade, o. Juliette tran. New York NY. Grove Press. Civilization and its Discontents Standard Edition. XXI , The Direction of the Treatment and the Principles of its Power , pp. Ecrits: A Selection. Lacan argues that the object o f jealousy i s not a n unconsciously loved rival but the jouissance of the partner.
Male jealousy bears on the woman's access to the Other jouissance which is not available to the man; female jealousy bears on the man's phallic jouissance which he extracts selflshly from intercourse with her. Lacan, L 'ctourdit, Scilicet, , no. Lacan, Jeunesse de Gide ou la lettre et Ie dcsir , Ecrits, o. Hollier, R. Michelson , Edited by J. Miller, Extimite , unpublished seminar; J. M iller, Extimitc trans. Massardier-Kenney , in M.
Bracher, M. Alcorn Jr. Massardier-Kenney Eds. Curiously , however, there is almost no discussion of jouissance in the one book by Zizek which incorporates the tenn in its title.
See: S. Feldstein Eds. Adams , Pather, can't you see I'm filming? Introduction Lacanian psychoanalysis constitutes a very powerful theory and a socially significant practice. Yet it is not a Weltanschauung, a totalized or totalizing world view, though many would like to make it such. I It is a discourse and, as such, has effects in the world. It is but one discourse among many, not the final, ultimate discourse. The dominant discourse in the world today is no doubt the discourse of power: power as a means to achieve x, y, and z.
Lacanian psychoanalysis is not, in and of itself, a discourse of power. It deploys a certain kind of power in the analytic situation, a power that is unjustifiable according to many American schools of psychology wherein the 'client's' autonomy read : ego is sacrosanct and must remain untrammeled and unchallenged. Psychoanalysis deploys the power of the cause of desire, in order to bring about a reconfiguration of the analysand's desire.
As such, analytic discourse is structured differently from the discourse of power. Lacan's 'four discourses' the master's discourse, the university discourse, the hysteric's discourse and the analyst's discourse seek to account for the structural differences among discourses , and I will turn to this accounting in a moment. First let me raise the question of relativism.
If psychoanalysis is not somehow the ultimate discourse, being but one discourse among others, what claim can it make to our attention? The hysteric's psychical structure does not change as he or she changes discourses, but his or her efficacy changes. Situating him or herself within the analyst's discourse, his or her effect on others corresponds to the effect allowed by that discourse, and suffers from the obstacles and shortcomings endemic to that discourse.