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Bentham's Panopticon is the architectural figure of this composition. . is both a counter-city and the perfect society; it imposes an ideal functioning, . 2. The swarming of disciplinary mechanisms. While, on the one hand, the.

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Most of the literature that has documented this phenomenon focused primarily on the experiences and perceptions of workers condemned to precarity and clandestinity. It emphasizes their suffering or, conversely, values their ability to resist and survive in a context of increased insecurity and injustice. Without neglecting the suffering of Palestinians, I will strive to bypass these approaches. As Lila Abu Lughod pointed out, the idea of resistance tends to overestimate the power of the oppressed. It promotes, also a binary construction of the conflict. Opposing the Israelis to the Palestinians, the concept of resistance overlooks multiple actors and intermediate interactions who actually play significant roles.

Finally, by focusing only on the suffering of the Palestinians, we risk limiting the focus of analysis to Israeli power. Moving the gaze from the workers to the smugglers, I suggest here an ethnography that takes into account all the actors involved in the process. I would show how Palestinians and Israelis intervene, both formally and informally, to facilitate the passage of Palestinians workers from the West Bank to Israel. They thus contribute to the functioning and the readjustments of the Israeli regime of mobility alongside Israeli authorities.

Based on a review of development assistance projects and of trade standardization and regulation attempts carried out in international institutions, the communication will examine the passage of goods at the border, particularly in developing countries. Although often presented in the contemporary frame of globalization and attached to the paradigms of development, the flexibility granted to the passage of goods is old, linked to the circulation and accumulation of wealth and the representation of abundance beyond the territory or the community.

This research seminar will discuss the way security and technological escalation have impacted State borders over the last 20 years. In the first workshop, the speakers will discuss the increasingly sophisticated technologies robots, drones, biometry, technosciences deployed nowadays along State borders as well as within and beyond these spaces. The socio-historical perspective adopted within the second workshop will help better grasp the processes within which this technological escalation is embedded.

Finally, the third workshop will present two trans-disciplinary works discussing the pervasive and diffuse character of border controls. Between biographies and codes, borders pervade human bodies and flows of digital data. The first decades of 21st century will be seen as the age of unmanned vehicles. Since , the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in war zones has increased dramatically.

Many of these are armed and controlled from thousands of miles away. Now this technology has proliferated to at least 76 countries and there is a massive international market. The developments have expanded to unmanned ships, submarines, cars and ground robots and they are beginning to make an appearance in the civil world with police and border protection agencies. This talk will examine the development of the technology and lead to a discussion about how it might be applied in the future border protection to keep people, keep people out or to keep people in.

The governance model of the Nation-State is now competing with the management methods of financial capitalism. A number of recent events confirm the strengthening of such trend: the appointment of Mario Monti and Loukas Papadimos in Italy and Greece, the sovereign debt crisis, etc. This redeployment of power requires to redefine and redraw the maps of these ongoing tensions by reassessing the notions of State security, border legislation, suffrage, labor law, tax, and market. This presentation intends to identify the fault lines between financial capitalism and the Nation-State and to inventory the techniques and technologies that are part of this reconfiguration.

I will start by contextualising this project by sketching in broad terms the tension between the governance of flow and the partitioning of the seas that characterises maritime governance, the broad geopolitical significance of the Mediterranean and the conditions in which the attempt to control the maritime borders of the EU operates. I will argue that despite their sophistication, these sensing technologies reach their limits when confronted will the mobility of illegalised migrants.

As a matter of fact, the militarisation and technologisation of migration control at sea have revealed to be deadly — over Finally, I will describe our investigation into a particular contentious incident at sea that has allowed us to go beyond counting and denouncing the deaths of migrants at sea and demand accountability.

This presentation aims at analyzing the regulatory attempts introduced by human genetic technoscience at the world scale. Particularly, the presentation underlines the way in which instrumentalization of bioethics committees and technological assessment programs at the national, supranational or international levels favor of the normalization of the human in biological terms.

In the process, borders are transformed into multiple public institutional networks arranged as polymorphic, discontinous and complementary configurations, which are created or deconstructed out of necessities and compelling needs for political legitimation. Technologies of social control and instruments of identification instruments are governmental techniques that helped the building of the Nation-State.

Anthropometry has allowed for the first time to establish scientifically the identity of offenders and to punish recidivists. These elements shaped the cornerstone of the anthropometric system. This general process of rationalization of police techniques in order to identify individuals Bertillon, fingerprinting, etc.

This intensification of technologies reflects a reorganization of modes of expressions of public authorities. It raises questions about the consequences of its search for a new efficiency and legitimacy. Indeed, this process has brought public authorities to increasingly anchor themselves within society and to rely on technological developments that blur the classical borders between security and freedom, justice and policing, repression and surveillance. In Japanese scientists led by Furuhata Tanemoto, a professor of forensic science and later the chief of National Research Institute of Police Science, began to classify racial and ethnic groups by calculating their fingerprints.

This paper conducts a historical case study of Japanese scientific research on fingerprints between the s and s in which bodies became space of bordering practices by predicting their dispositions and criminality. Spatialisation of bodies was twofold: on the one hand bodies were spatialised in a sense that physical bodily features became sphere of production of a particular identity; and on the other hand bodies were also territorialised into a geographical location and the spectrum of political powers.

Risk management strategies associated with the quest to securitize transnational mobility have triggered a technological race to embed borders into the human body. The belief is that mobile risks can be estimated from mobile bodies and efficiently eliminated along the way, so that traffic flows are not disrupted at the border. Accordingly, bodies are imagined as spaces to inscribe borders on.

This logic of power has adopted a view predominant in natural sciences that sees the body as a material object that can be rendered digitally knowable with the help of technology. Biometric technologies, among others, are used to acquire comprehensive knowledge about every mobile body even before it crosses state borders.

Then, these bodily data are used to classify people in terms of good versus bad mobility in order to produce categories that are amenable to risk contingency calculus. In this way, knowledge of the body results in power over the body. This is, at the same time, power over the most intimate and mobile of spaces. A closer examination reveals that such logic of spatial control tends to imagine border automation as panacea for reconciling unfettered mobility and territorial security.

Biometric technology is understood as a tool that would allow predicting future threats and threatening behavior. Contrary to claims that digital border technologies simply aid human decision-making, the manner in which they are implemented suggests that border automation aims to assume self decision-making capabilities that diminish human involvement in the act of bordering. In this context, it is important to understand if biometric bordering can reduce uncertainty to make life more secure or if it is creating more uncertainty making life more precarious.

The 18th and 19th centuries were disciplinary eras where societies implemented a type of power, a set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, and technologies that were anti nomadic. This is a time when a type of power, and technique allows the body to become a password in a coded flow, allowing access to mobility and status.

In the meantime security which was traditionally conceived as mono-sectoral and focused on the military, is now multi-sectoral. This suggests the importance of thinking clearly about the balance between sectors, types of threats, actors and elements, which together have important implications for security policies. Security policies are more complex, because issues identified as security threats are also more diverse; they are plural and multi-faceted in nature.

Border security policies struggle with these new complex dimensions of security. Indeed, this new complexity is reflected in various uneven ways in state border and borderland policy and affects their neighborly and international relations. This increased complexity in security matters also has consequences for definitions of borders and borderlands — it is the border here, there, everywhere. The Texas Border and AZ: move and get shot are two net-based artworks which explore the phenomenon of surveillance on the internet carried out by civilians on the border between Mexico and the US.

Many of these online platforms appeared during the rise of the social networking service whose structure was adopted as a cheaper and more efficient alternative way to monitor the border. Thus, the recreational activity became a tool for militarizing the civil society. This talk will expose the research process behind the two artworks and will analyze the evolution of some of these net based platforms from its inception to the present.

Because of the increasingly restrictive policies framing global migrations, the granting of asylum and the social protection of vulnerable migrant groups have become new biographical borders between the West and the Rest of the world. Within the humanitarian governance of migration, gender and sexuality have become strategic narrative repertoires through which hierarchies of belonging and barriers to mobility are reinforced. Emborders assembles the narratives of victimhood and emancipation they perform in the context of original research interviews and ethnographic observations.

Pictures are moments captured, shared, modified in the circulation of information flow.

Israeli settlements, explained - Settlements Part I

Thus they contribute to form the very substance of our everyday experience, not only as objects that we encounter and convey meaning, but as the changing reality of the environment in which we find ourselves. Hence, the place of images has been modified as well as the relationship between images to places. The main issue at stake is no longer only the separation between the image of the world and the world of images, but that many ways in which the interpenetration of the world and images occurs.

This new position of the image is related to the way one can think of the space of information flows. For a long time cyberspace was thought as a second sphere in which one could immerge oneself; a world without borders that was be deployed beyond the geographical space, or in which the forms of separation and closure were of a different nature.

It must be noted that what is currently happening is significantly different. It is the relationship between image and immersion and pervasion that will be discussed in this talk. This research seminar will revolve around three axes: a review of the discussions we have developed during our program in ; the presentation of transdisciplinary approaches of border; and finaly, the preparation of the art-science exhibition, the antiAtlas of Borders that will take place at the Tapestry Museum of Aix en Provence in October The aim of this seminar is to discuss the difficulties, modalities, or impossibilities by which we can represent borders in their complexity breaking up, flexibility, punctiform, virtual, etc.

Nick Mai Presentation of Emborders: problematizing sexual humanitarianism through experimental filmmaking. What first conclusions for the renewal of border analysis can be drawn from this first year of methodological dialogues between sciences, technologies, representations and art. Altogether, the project shows that formal and experimental scientific and artistic theories, models and techniques provide useful conceptualization tools that can productively be intersected with social science analyses.

These innovative conceptualizations were presented to people involved in the control and management of borders customs authorities, government officials, security industrials or military representatives and were recognized as useful tool to discuss the practical, social, political and ethical implications of the different forms of contemporary border transformations examined in the context of the project. The contemporary increase and diversification of migration flows on a global scale coincides with the onset of humanitarian forms of governance.

Because of the increasingly restrictive policies framing global migrations, the granting of asylum and the social protection of vulnerable migrant groups have become new embodied borders between the West and the Rest of the world. Within the humanitarian governance of migration, gender and sexuality have become strategic narrative repertoires through which racialised hierarchies of belonging and barriers to mobility are reinforced. Both groups can be targeted by sexual humanitarianism as potentia victism of sex trafficking and sexual minorty refugees respectively. Emborders assembles the narratives of victimhood and emancipation they perform in the context of original research interviews.

Emborders is a scientific reconstruction of the life histories of migrants targeted by sexual humanitarianism. It is also an artistic reflection on the inherently fictional nature of any narration of the self. By using actors to reproduce real people and real life histories, the film project ultimately challenges what constitutes a credible and acceptable reality in scientific, filmic and humanitarian terms. Heath Bunting Artist and activist, Bristol Build a new identity workshop. Heath Bunting will present the project Status, initiated in , which offers a system for the digital production of identities.

The project consists of a database containing more than 5, entries on the various elements of identification of a person. This system is available at irational. From the interconnection of all these data it produces maps representing networks and generating a social status. All of our actions and movements are traced. To take a subscription to the library, a transit card or to make a purchases online, wec onstantly fill in forms where we allow anodyne data about us: name, address, credit card number, phone … By combining all available data about a person, it is possible to assign a social status.

Status reveals how such constructions then influence our mobility within the social space online or offline. The TOM published its first cross-border map in , which made visible for the first time cross-border workers flows between France and its neighbouring countries. The presentation will show the innovative reach of such an approach, both on technical and political levels.

It will also address the numerous technical difficulties that any crossborder data producer and conceiver meets in relation to both the statistical and cartographical dimensions. This kind of approach has remained without equivalent in France or in other European countries and we will discuss the different uses and impacts of such a tool on cross border knowledge.

Cartographic production has considerably evolved in the past years due to the advent of geovisualization. However, static maps remain a very valued communication tool to represent cross-border phenomenons, as witnessed by the World Atlases and the SciencePo-Paris cartography workshop productions. The cartographic language edited by Bertin in remains valid, but a semiologic void limits its representation. Considering past investigation both on information organization and the research launched by the Hypercarte Grasland et al, project on cross-border cartographic representation, we discuss the study of cross-border cartographic representations.

Which graphic representations are attributed to those objects? What kind of captions are attached to these maps? This scale is yet but little studied within this field. The aim of these diagrams it their use by cartographers and geomatic professionals undertaking borderland applications. The aim of this work is to orientate representation choices which can then be integrated within the diagrams. The final objective of this research is to open a discussion on a possible universal method of cross-border cartography. As a visual artist, my primary material is language.

Much of the language or text used in my work is found, familiar and perhaps overlooked; I treat language as a cultural readymade. Expanding on propositions raised through pop and conceptual art, my work has evolved from painting into printed matter, to the dissemination of pop music, and on to various forms of signage—both within the gallery structure and as interventions in the public sphere. The work not only operates within a field of consumption and circulation specific to the artworld, but also within a broader, yet complex, social and political field.

For Re-imaging or Re-imagining Borders, my discussion will focus on my interest in signage, with a particular emphasis on two key works as it pertains to borders: Entering City of Vancouver and You Have Left the American Sector , both large highway-type signs which seek to heighten the idea of a border and to suggest a symbolic change within the landscape.

Beyond the critical analysis of the gaze, in great part initiated by feminist geographers, it is the irruption of the body within landscape analysis which is at stake. It is the entire human body which, feeling and living its environment, makes landscape. One could therefore agree on attributing a more complex performative power to landscape than just saying that it imposes power.

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This term has the advantage of putting forward the interaction between the material and sensorial components of the environment, while getting around the issue of their representation, criticized for the distance it imposes. If those works rely on phenomenology, it is to discuss one of its important elements, the notion of representation itself, putting forward the fact that concept building from perception does not necessarily need to be mediated by representation.

Landscape illustrates this difficulty : both signifier and signified, it can only be grasped by bypassing semiologic analysis. Valorizing its practical value, such an approach could have had the inconvenient of almost totally erasing the possible esthetic finality of landscape. Artistic approaches allow us to enter into landscape through image analysis, without reducing one to the other. I offer to work on the image built by walled borders as well on its transformation by visual artists. Research about cultural production in and about borderlands open questions on the status of the image — icon — simulacrum within space — power relationships.

Between and , the multiplication of road obstacles and random controls, made it difficult to plan the time and the trajectory of a trip, as well as to project oneself into a cartographic representation of space. Finally, the multiplication of regulations and authorities in charge of their implementation created an arbitrary system within which the right of movement is never gained. During the post Intifada period , the Israeli authorities have relaxed this system of control. Yet, Palestinian movements are still affected by a certain degree of uncertainty.

Many researchers have assessed the impact of these control mechanisms on space practices. While some simply assume the effects of particular devices such as the panopticon , others appraise their impact through the study of extremely rich stories of daily experiences.

Yet, by focusing on the effects of these control mechanisms rather than on the reactions and the adaptations of Palestinians, these scholars limit themselves to the sociology of power. On the contrary, by focusing on such reactions and adaptations, we suggest to study the ways by which Palestinians develop alternative forms of indexation of spaces and their trajectories.

This does not mean neglecting the disturbing effects of these mechanisms of control on Palestinian daily lives.

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It means examining how local actors that are subjected to it can, to a certain extent, reintroduce a degree of certainty and recover a relative hold of their daily travels. How we represent space and our place in a given environment has been an object of epistemological thinking for centuries. Recently, with the development of experimental psychology and neurosciences, we have started to address this issue from an experimental point of view. The work done during the last thirty years has revealed a number of regions of the brain and neural networks involved in the specific coding and storage of spatial information.

The activity of this ensemble of cells may determine how we represent and memorize our position in space. Starting from our personal experience as artists motivated by transdisciplinary exploration, we will present many of our projects. The starting point is the idea that the border—both in its geopolitical and symbolic dimension—marks the life and experience of subjects and that this condition, in turn, marks the way in which we represent the border. That is, the social imaginary is built from a series of varied social representations that respond to different border conditions.

My work analyzes the levels of transborderism and their relationship to the levels of complexity of social representations in the U. In my presentation, I will speak first of the theoretical statement that support the notions of border and transborderism; second, I will analyze diverse cultural expressions visual arts, oral narratives, cinematographic animations that show the different levels of complexity of social representations in this particular border.

Within this intervention, we offer to present the methodology that we developed in order to understand the border object. From the initial wandering to the organization of cultural events in some symbolic border places, passing through the photographic listing of over control posts, this presentation will build over the following points:.

These points will be illustrated by a presentation of our database database. The use of technology to control flows of people and goods across borders is quickly becoming an ubiquitous practice. The deployment of technological bordering devices raises a series of crucial questions for it participates into the broad transformations of the nature, the shapes of borders, spaces and territoriality. Noel Sharkey Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Professor, University of Sheffield Bordering on the ridiculous: controlling our movements from the sky.

Lessons learned from an expertise mission in South-East Asia. This project aimed to prevent illegal immigration, drug smuggling and terrorism. The use of surveillance technology seems to be one of the key elements of security making, because it apparently allows a systematic and global surveillance of the border area. Such technologies would face the uncertainty and the unpredictability of illegal influx. Few years before, the American concept of smart borders had introduced technologies in order to identify merchandises chips and microchips and individuals biometric controls, electronic cards, etc.

Nowadays, the American example is not exceptional and the use of technologies in the field of border control is more and more current in the world as for the Schengen borders in Europe. This lecture will attempt to stress the state of the art of the use of technology for border control and to consider the meaning and the consequences of this use on the configuration of borders? In a globalised world where interconnectedness and integration are key dynamics influencing economic growth and social development, policymakers are increasingly realizing the need for accelerated border management regulatory reform to reduce unnecessary barriers and burdens on trade.

However, the fruits of globalization are used not only by legal businesses, but also by illegal traders. Therefore, border agencies face a serious challenge of balancing security and trade facilitation. The World Customs Organization WCO has developed a set of instruments in order to assist Customs Administrations in promoting the balance between the two, and technology plays a pivotal role striving for this objective. After the overview of WCO instruments we will look into different kinds of technologies that are currently in use, as well as those that are now being developed.

We will also discuss issues pertaining to the operationalisation of technologies, as they become vital for any agency that considers using them. Finally, we will discuss critical aspects of technology development which would allow it to remain an indispensable tool in the hands of Customs.

The aim is to emphasize the networking logic that animates security apparatuses, the ways in which this logic impact on contemporary practices of borderization and the emergence of traceability as the major technique of contemporary governmentality. TALOS addresses the surveillance of large land border areas, which was recognized by the European Commission as a strategic ability for its border security mission.

Its aim is to help the detecting, tracking and apprehending of people attempting to cross the border outside of surveilled and authorized routes.

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Noel Sharkey Professor of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, University of Sheffield Bordering on the ridiculous: controlling our movements from the sky. The idea is to have a staged move from man-in-the-loop to man-on-the-loop to full autonomy. While this may create considerable military advantages it raises ethical concerns with regard to potential breaches of International Humanitarian Law. Moreover, we are already seeing these new technologies being deployed at borders in countries such as US, Latin, America, South Korea and Israel.

Drone technology alone has proliferated to more than 51 countries and police forces are beginning to use it routinely. The talk will discuss the development of the technology into the near future as it becomes more autonomous and explore the ethical dimensions.

Crossing points in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip

From a few examples of technologies introduced in the Customs administrations in sub-Saharan Africa and an ethnography conducted in an African Customs reforming for more than four years, the communication will develop three main ideas. Risk management strategies associated with the quest to securitize transnational mobility have triggered a technological race to embed borders into all kinds of flows in order for the border to be able to travel with the flow and be ready to be performed whenever circumstances require.

With the help of technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification RFID borders are disembedded from their local contexts, projected at distance, and then re-embedded anywhere in the state territory. This situation opens up the entire space of the globe to bordering processes, thus accelerating the proliferation of borders and multiplying the actors involved in their establishment.

The implications for society of such novel border spatiality are paramount.

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It is vital to understand how is democratic participation to be spatially reorganized to assure border governance remains in the public domain. In this perspective, the migrant experience is characterized by a permanent break with the places that link the individual with his or her native environment as well as by the confrontation with a world that thinks and lives differently. Current understandings of the experience of migration, whether they refer to issues of cultural identity of integration, refer to and focus on a series of breaks and oppositions. Today, the definition of the migrant based on different forms of rupture considered to be fundamental and radical is in trouble.

Alternative organizing principles emerge, as mobility and connectivity mark the experiences of contemporary migrants. In this talk, my aim is to analyse the different and interlinked forms of rootedness, displacement and connectedness that are experienced by contemporary migrants. Contemporary sociological studies of migration must focus on issues of connectedness and of presence. On the contrary, it is more and more common for migrants to maintain distant relations that are similar to relations of proximity and to be able to activate them remotely on adaily basis.

One of its main goals is to visualize waves of emergence, obsolescence, import-export of artistic concepts, as well as to detect formats. Contrary to art history, where forms are labeled once they have been formatted, ArtWar e seeks to track these trends as soon as they emerge, before they have been named and filed as art.

It is quite a kafkaesque project, for it uses the most powerful surveillance tools ever built, such as Facebook, in order to observe the slightest moves of the social life of forms. We shall present the methodology and the principles of the Facebook application we are working on. The question of type aims to distinguished different kind of technologies and essentially wall and fence. The distinction betwenn wall and fence will be discused on a symbolic point of view.

The efficiency of High-tech fences and the difficult measure of these artefacts will be underlined. In terms of finctionning, we will underline their connection with xheckpoints as border barriers are not erected to stop all flows but to select them. Thses checkponts are included in networks and connected with national or international data bases. At the international scale, border barriers seems to be linked with geopolitics macrologics as essentially with wealth development discontinuities.

While drawing a border is, by definition, a bilateral process, building a wall is a unilateral act that freezes a line of demarcation. Thus the return of the wall as a political tool may be symptomatic of a new era in international relations, redefining interstate couples around the world. They were also willing to introduce international best practices in managing the road assets. These included supervision of maintenance activities by private sector consultants, implementation of pavement management and road asset management systems, implementation of performance-based road maintenance contracts, and international tendering procedures.

An automated customs clearance system was introduced to support customs operations, especially given the rapid increase in traffic volume throughout project implementation.

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Six customs personnel were trained on the new system. Computerized cargo registration was also introduced to improve transparency and deter unauthorized payments at the border crossing. Other customs control equipment such as metal detectors, x-ray equipment, computers, and electronic tagging equipment were installed on both the Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic sides. Lower freight rates and public transport fares were also expected, which can provide more convenient and faster access to market for the people in Almaty and Bishkek as well as the rural communities in between.

However, road accidents have increased due to the increased travel speeds and vehicle overtaking opportunities, with the number of fatalities increasing threefold in Although the project road was designed and rehabilitated to international road safety standards, the problem appears to stem from driver behavior and cultural aspects. Moreover, enforcement of traffic rules has been lacking in Central Asian countries and, for most drivers, it is relatively easy to obtain a driving license without going through a proper driver education program.

Kazakhstan has passed several road legislations, including the most recent Law on Road Traffic in The Kyrgyz Republic has established a National Road Safety Council to assist in preparing road safety strategies and action plans, improving collection and processing of road accident data, and coordinating and implementing road safety initiatives and campaigns. New livelihoods emerged in the form of retail shops, taxis, car washes, roadside cafes, hair salons, exchange offices, and other enterprises.

During project implementation, some 3, jobs were made available for the local population directly on the road rehabilitation activities.

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Commercial outlets along the road have also mushroomed. Kazakhstan is one of the major trading partners of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Trade between the two countries has increased by times since the beginning of the project, mainly because the rehabilitated road provided a stronger link between two major markets in Central Asia, one on the outskirts of Bishkek and the other near Almaty. As most of the goods are transported along the project road between these two markets, the project has also positively contributed to those whose employment and livelihood rely on these markets.

As members of the Eurasian Economic Union with a common customs border, the two countries plan further expansion of the border facilities, as well as further streamlining of border crossing procedures to allow for speedy and smooth movement of vehicles, passengers, and goods. ABEC will allow businesses to specialize more, operate at a larger scale and achieve greater diversification and competitiveness with the purpose of exporting goods and services outside the region.

The implementation of the corridor enjoys strong political support. This work was performed by a joint working group of the two governments with support from consultants and informed by study tours. The Almaty-Bishkek Regional Road Rehabilitation Project was a very challenging, large-scale, two-country, cross-border road project. Such transborder infrastructure projects often involve broad and complex issues that can be difficult to resolve and requires adequate time.

The agreement was instrumental in making the two countries work together. Through the agreement, the governments worked on not only making border crossing procedures easier, but also on road maintenance and road safety initiatives. The capacity of the ministries of transport and communications of both countries as executing agencies was limited as was their understanding of international bidding, contracting practices, and ADB procedures.

The lack of careful consideration of the limited capacity and inexperience of the executing agencies in managing ADB projects impeded the transition from project planning to implementation. During the significant amount of time that had elapsed until before project implementation, the Almaty-Bishkek Road sustained further deterioration, requiring more improvement works. Road redesign with a reduced project scope resulted in further delays and additional costs.

Such limitation of the executing agency should be considered in project preparation and planning. Improved transport corridors are reducing time and costs of transporting goods and people. Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation. Narendra Singru is the team leader for the transport sector of the Kyrgyz Republic and is processing a project for introducing performance-based road maintenance in Kazakhstan.

He has more than 20 years of international experience in infrastructure development and financing. Thomas Herz is the team leader for the transport sector of the Republic of Kazakhstan. He has more than 20 years of experience in the transport planning and engineering sector in Germany, the United States, eastern Europe and Caucasus. View the discussion thread. The views expressed on this website are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank ADB or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent.

ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Skip to main content.