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- ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION.
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Pictured left: Reconstructed Olive Jar, circa Pictured left: 17th century artifacts, freshly washed in the field. Powered By Revize Login. Common methods of public outreach include press releases, and the encouragement of school field trips to sites under excavation by professional archaeologists. One audience for archaeologists' work is the public. They increasingly realize that their work can benefit non-academic and non-archaeological audiences, and that they have a responsibility to educate and inform the public about archaeology.
Local heritage awareness is aimed at increasing civic and individual pride through projects such as community excavation projects, and better public presentations of archaeological sites and knowledge. Volunteers work with professional USFS archaeologists and historians on national forests throughout the U. Volunteers are involved in all aspects of professional archaeology under expert supervision. Television programs, web videos and social media can also bring an understanding of underwater archaeology to a broad audience. The Mardi Gras Shipwreck Project  integrated a one-hour HD documentary,  short videos for public viewing and video updates during the expedition as part of the educational outreach.
Webcasting is also another tool for educational outreach. For one week in and , live underwater video of the Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project was webcast to the Internet as a part of the QAR DiveLive  educational program that reached thousands of children around the world. In the UK, popular archaeology programs such as Time Team and Meet the Ancestors have resulted in a huge upsurge in public interest.
Archaeological excavation, however, is best undertaken by well-trained staff that can work quickly and accurately. Often this requires observing the necessary health and safety and indemnity insurance issues involved in working on a modern building site with tight deadlines.
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Certain charities and local government bodies sometimes offer places on research projects either as part of academic work or as a defined community project. Archaeologists prize local knowledge and often liaise with local historical and archaeological societies, which is one reason why Community archaeology projects are starting to become more common.
Often archaeologists are assisted by the public in the locating of archaeological sites, which professional archaeologists have neither the funding, nor the time to do. Archaeological Legacy Institute ALI , is a registered [c]  non-profit, media and education corporation registered in Oregon in ALI founded a website, The Archaeology Channel to support the organization's mission "to nurturing and bringing attention to the human cultural heritage, by using media in the most efficient and effective ways possible.
Pseudoarchaeology is an umbrella term for all activities that falsely claim to be archaeological but in fact violate commonly accepted and scientific archaeological practices. It includes much fictional archaeological work discussed above , as well as some actual activity.
Many non-fiction authors have ignored the scientific methods of processual archaeology, or the specific critiques of it contained in post-processualism. His book, Chariots of the Gods? Works of this nature are usually marked by the renunciation of well-established theories on the basis of limited evidence, and the interpretation of evidence with a preconceived theory in mind.
Looting of archaeological sites is an ancient problem. For instance, many of the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs were looted during antiquity. The commercial and academic demand for artifacts unfortunately contributes directly to the illicit antiquities trade. Smuggling of antiquities abroad to private collectors has caused great cultural and economic damage in many countries whose governments lack the resources and or the will to deter it.
Looters damage and destroy archaeological sites, denying future generations information about their ethnic and cultural heritage. Indigenous peoples especially lose access to and control over their 'cultural resources', ultimately denying them the opportunity to know their past. In , W. Hodge the Director of the Southwest Museum released a statement that the museum would no longer purchase or accept collections from looted contexts.
Archaeologists trying to protect artifacts may be placed in danger by looters or locals trying to protect the artifacts from archaeologists who are viewed as looters by the locals. In the United States, examples such as the case of Kennewick Man have illustrated the tensions between Native Americans and archaeologists, which can be summarized as a conflict between a need to remain respectful toward sacred burial sites and the academic benefit from studying them.
For years, American archaeologists dug on Indian burial grounds and other places considered sacred, removing artifacts and human remains to storage facilities for further study. In some cases human remains were not even thoroughly studied but instead archived rather than reburied. Furthermore, Western archaeologists' views of the past often differ from those of tribal peoples.
The West views time as linear; for many natives, it is cyclic. From a Western perspective, the past is long-gone; from a native perspective, disturbing the past can have dire consequences in the present. As a consequence of this, American Indians attempted to prevent archaeological excavation of sites inhabited by their ancestors, while American archaeologists believed that the advancement of scientific knowledge was a valid reason to continue their studies.
This contradictory situation was addressed by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act NAGPRA, , which sought to reach a compromise by limiting the right of research institutions to possess human remains. Due in part to the spirit of postprocessualism , some archaeologists have begun to actively enlist the assistance of indigenous peoples likely to be descended from those under study.
Archaeologists have also been obliged to re-examine what constitutes an archaeological site in view of what native peoples believe to constitute sacred space. To many native peoples, natural features such as lakes, mountains or even individual trees have cultural significance.
Australian archaeologists especially have explored this issue and attempted to survey these sites to give them some protection from being developed. Such work requires close links and trust between archaeologists and the people they are trying to help and at the same time study. While this cooperation presents a new set of challenges and hurdles to fieldwork, it has benefits for all parties involved.
Tribal elders cooperating with archaeologists can prevent the excavation of areas of sites that they consider sacred, while the archaeologists gain the elders' aid in interpreting their finds. There have also been active efforts to recruit aboriginal peoples directly into the archaeological profession. A new trend in the heated controversy between First Nations groups and scientists is the repatriation of native artifacts to the original descendants.
An example of this occurred on 21 June , when community members and elders from a number of the 10 Algonquian nations in the Ottawa area convened on the Kitigan Zibi reservation near Maniwaki, Quebec , to inter ancestral human remains and burial goods—some dating back 6, years. It was not determined, however, if the remains were directly related to the Algonquin people who now inhabit the region. The remains may be of Iroquoian ancestry, since Iroquoian people inhabited the area before the Algonquin. Moreover, the oldest of these remains might have no relation at all to the Algonquin or Iroquois, and belong to an earlier culture who previously inhabited the area.
The remains and artifacts, including jewelry , tools and weapons , were originally excavated from various sites in the Ottawa Valley , including Morrison and the Allumette Islands. They had been part of the Canadian Museum of Civilization 's research collection for decades, some since the late 19th century. Elders from various Algonquin communities conferred on an appropriate reburial, eventually deciding on traditional redcedar and birchbark boxes lined with redcedar chips, muskrat and beaver pelts.
An inconspicuous rock mound marks the reburial site where close to 80 boxes of various sizes are buried. Because of this reburial, no further scientific study is possible. Although negotiations were at times tense between the Kitigan Zibi community and museum, they were able to reach agreement. Kennewick Man is another repatriation candidate that has been the source of heated debate. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Archaeology disambiguation. For the magazine, see The Archaeologist. For the silent film, see The Archeologist. The study of the past through material culture. Outline History. Archaeological Biological Cultural Linguistic Social.
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Main article: Archaeological survey. Main article: Excavation archaeology. Main article: Post-excavation analysis.
Main article: Computational archaeology. Main article: Virtual archaeology. Main article: Archaeological sub-disciplines. Main article: Historical archaeology. Main article: Ethnoarchaeology. Main article: Experimental archaeology. Main article: Archaeological science. Main article: Cultural resources management. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Pseudoarchaeology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press The Parkers of Heytesbury: Archaeological pioneers. Invisible Pioneers. Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum. Archaeological Sampling Strategies. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences , : —24, doi : Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies.
American Antiquity. Diving for Science Aldenderfer, M. CO;2-E Willey, G. Main articles: Bibliography of anthropology and Table of years in archaeology. Archaeology in the Making. London: Routledge. Interpreting Archaeology: Finding Meaning in the Past. Archaeology: The Discipline of Things. Shanks, Michael Experiencing the Past: On the Character of Archaeology. London and New York: Routledge. This plan is usually a continuation and expansion of Phase II activities. The data recovery plan should be detailed, discussing and justifying the design of the investigation which will retrieve the data, what research questions will be addressed, the proposed analysis and the expected results, and a justification for the expenditure of money on the data recovery project should be clearly stated.
If the recovery plan is unusually complex, then a Memorandum of Agreement MOA between participating agencies should be developed. Refer to the guidelines for further Phase III guidance. Skip to content Toggle navigation. I want to Toggle Sidebar Archaeological Survey.