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Pew Internet and American Life Project. Daily tracking survey data set. Pigato , M. Washington DC : World Bank. Pool , I. Communication flows: A census in the US and Japan. Amsterdam : North Holland. Potter , W. Media literacy. Powell , W. Neither market nor hierarchy: Network forms of organizations. Slaw Ed. Press , L. The Internet in India and China.
Putnam , R. Bowling alone: The collapse and survival of American community. Quan-Haase , A. Capitalizing on the Net: Social contact, civic engagement, and sense of community. Rainie , L. Tracking online life: How women use the Internet to cultivate relationships with family and friends. Rawls , J. Theory of justice. Robinson , J. New social survey perspectives on the digital divide. Rockwell , S. The effects of computer anxiety and communication apprehension on the adoption and utilization of the Internet.
Rojas , V. Communities, cultural capital and the digital divide. Rosen , L. Myths and realities of computerphobia: A meta-analysis. Anxiety Research , 3 , — The Rural Secretariat. Savolainen , R. Network competence and information seeking on the Internet: From definitions towards a social cognitive model. Journal of Documentation , 58 2 , — Schement , J. Measuring what Jefferson knew and de Tocqueville saw: Libraries as bridges across the digital divide. Identifying temporary and permanent gaps in universal service.
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Heritage Foundation Backgrounder Tichenor , P. Mass media flow and differential growth in knowledge. Public Opinion Quarterly , 34 , — Tilly , C. Durable inequality. Toffler , A. What problems are brought to the surface by the change of lifstyles, the transforming data security environment and the investigation of the new community forms? They are common in starting with a bombastic opening chapter and generally continuing with the organizing survey of educational or PC-course level items. The further the technology is, the closer social policy gets. However, while these studies — stepping over the industrial dominance — wished or stated the change of the comprehensive social quality, they seemed more and more anacronistic because of the apparently unchanging political-business status quo.
Still this traditon is nothing else but a solution applying the definitions based on economic sector-dominance in the socio-political field. Castells , too, stepping over the earlier many times false and superficial historical analogies, aims his big experiment at the embedment of the plenitude of changes into a summerizing scientific system model.
It is important that sci-fi takes effect on two levels: beside the works dealing with the future of the artificial and natural intelligence, the anti utopies created with latent community philosophy and image of the man, which, practically in addition suggest possible development scenarios, repeating more and more banal and unresourceful patterns of attitude and operation, also influence the general public.
On the contrary: with the folklorization, a part of the theories having been valid in the formerly strict context, has mixed irretrievably with the opinions of obscure origin dominating the public opinion pertinaciously. While the freshest developments of the industry are being transferred, beside hardware and software technology, to information and knowledge management and content providing, a new type of lecture titles and presentaion works is appearing on professional conferences and events.
This hypocritical- technocrate approach degrades the question of the information society to the level of linking methods, system specification and operational potencial growth, and so it gives its representatives the opportunity to keep and monopolize their official-bureaucratic positions having gained in the golden era of telecommunication and computer systems together with the decision preparing and making role that goes with their positions.
This is the base for the reasoning of those transforming technology into business, too. Because market competition is getting sharp, the market is growing and needs bigger and bigger participants, this approach jumps to a political level rapidly. The disputants deserving a better lot are fighting their unfruitful battles, and they are only assisting to the weakening of the opinion- and publicity- forming strength of the scholar community.
IT report approximately 30 programs have been born on a national scale. Instead of the short description of each, I will now give a comparative introduction of them considering formal and content respects. The countries have approached their information strategies in two different ways. The first model is more typical in Asia, and the second in Europe, together with its advantages and disadvantages.
In the European model, that comissions coordination to the market instead of the governmental organs, and starts information strategy in a monetarist view, the traditional sectoral borders are much more preserved, although the comprehensive moments are weaker. Anyway, the information strategies of the otherwise rather far countries have several common characteristics. The information strategies are elaborated to very different rates. There are dozens of satellite-program pamphlets revolving around the Canadian basic documents of book extent, beside the comprehensive Finnish program there has been a strategy of the same extent made regarding only the educational system, while the Polish or Philippinean basic texts are of hardly bigger extent than some pages.
Some nations make plans for only five years until about the end of the millenary Vietnam, Norway , some take aim at Japan or Malaysia. Concerning contents, the central moment is the establishment of the national information infrastructure NII and within that the governmental information infrastructure, as it is the starting development enabling all conceptions at social level. Because of the substantial identity of technology, the national characteristics can hardly appear in the programs which outline the IT-opportunities of health care, education, research-development and the other fields in a routine or homework manner.
The direct aims are relatively plain: creation of jobs, reduction of expenses, improvement of efficiency, better operational methods, bigger publicity, more satisfied citizen. Mainly similar tasks arise from these, without any priorities: standardization, integration, implementation. In the starting of local experiments and pilot projects, the governments generally rely on the impulsion of private capital and local resources. In the meantime, our thinking is strongly bounded by the fact that we want to measure the transforming reality of the present in the light of the idealized order of the future as it relates to timeless social philosophical axes.
This is the source of a paradox in dealing with the issue or most recently: discipline of the information society: it is simultaneously a sociological adventure and a daily strategic challenge, an anthropological promise and a raw commercial reality, a chance to improve the quality of life and an economic battle which hinges on gaining competitive advantage. And however loud journalists may laugh at the millions of dollars spent to reverse the trend, calling these hopeless efforts a Mission Impossible, we are currently on the front line of the information society race.
This is not the place to give a full, systematic and detailed historical overview1 :this is but an introductory collection of examples to show the existence and abundance of those currently recognized information patterns. We choose not to include the fostering of information competitiveness within one state empire or community , the information games between opposing groups, or the historical forms of information monopolies, since the close relationship between methods, professional institutions and IT-solutions chosen for the individual tasks would require common discussion in the case of another approach.
Similarly, 1 For the relevance of the information history-based overview, see Chandler-Cortada Instead we will focus on the amplification of the economic-social potential through a consciously planned internal information system aimed directly or indirectly at generating competitive advantage. Yet innovations in information technology can also be deduced from the relations between space physical and communal space interconnected by communication and the time needed to carry out the connecting operations3, as H.
Innis convincingly demonstrated at the beginning of the s Innis, , However, the conjunctive tissues of communication within empires and the guarantee of their stability in the face of rival empires were provided by consciously developed fundamental systems of information infrastructure — the information metabolism of these societies, including the institutional forms of information production academia , storage library and dissemination communication, education.
First of all, the professional news and postal service, which turned from heralds to carrier-pigeon networks as the fastest way to deliver written records up to the middle of the 19th century. The news and message household of Egypt and Mesopotamia involved carefully organized, painstakingly maintained and controlled channels. A Chinese organization based on post-houses managed by the central and local powers could make the multipoint to multipoint sign-stream seamless in a similar way.
The Persian and Roman Empires also used legendarily effective and prioritized background news industries. The medieval rebirth of the postal service, together with the cyclic financing failures accompanying its development, retrospectively outline the rhythm that led from the recognition of challenges stemming from outside pressures to an increase in the recognized demand for interior communication performance. The distinguished role of the news service, which was supported by investment or resource redeployment and transitionally handled as a priority to address this challenge4 , lapsed at the very moment when the outer pressure was relieved and the resources were needed in other subsystems.
By the way, in Southeast Asia, the three city-states of Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong had already taken their places among the top three in information infrastructure especially via their prominent positions gained along cable-laying routes at the end of the 19th century, besides Japan and Korea. We should not disregard this issue when we attempt to reconstruct their later successful information society stories. Indeed, it was the United States that began to write the next chapter of communication history with the development of its telegraph network, running parallel to transcontinental railways this system surpassed any other similar efforts both in pace and density6.
In the next wave, at the outset of the construction of telephone networks, the champion riders of development were the free market in the Anglo-Saxon world and private enterprise, which embarked on network-building with single concession holders in other places. Meanwhile, in Germany it was the government that put itself at the head of the telephone program7 — taking economic and administrative-political considerations into account.
The pace made by government and market forces in the wake of these developments can probably be best demonstrated in action in connection with the building of radio broadcasting networks8, that great infrastructure adventure of the third decade of the 20th century. If we examine the list giving the number of radio transmission stations for each individual country in , we can see that out of the top twenty nations in the current Information Society rankings, only Singapore, Taiwan and Israel are missing.
This is no surprise, since none of these small nations existed as independent states at that time! Table 5. Number of radio transmitting stations in Radioamateur, Rank Country radio stations 1. United States of America 2. Canada 78 5 Charles C. Mann, astonished by the fact that in the old Verdi and his librettist, Arrigo Boito often wrote letters daily to each other, is inclined to recognize the archetype of e-mail, which praises the advanced postal service of North Italy especially Milan, proud of its five delivery cycles each day. While in , America had 20 city telephone networks, Berlin only opened its first one in , yet, by that time there had already been about smaller rural telephone offices operating in Germany the prototype of Infobahn itself!
The Russian solution based on wired broadcasting was also very similar. Sweden 30 4. Germany 28 England 20 Australia 20 7. New-Zealand 14 8. France 13 Belgium 12 Uruguay 12 Japan 11 Norway 9 Finland 7 Czech Republic 6 Austria 5 Italy 5 Holland 5 Poland 5 Switzerland 5 India 3 Denmark 3 The knowledge revolution of the Renaissance emerged in its own era as luxury production and consumption, established on deep economic foundations.
It was able to become a generator of competitive advantage because, with its reviving fresh new waves, it created a widening transformational starting point toward technological innovation. The actual track for racing has always been these specialists scholars, artists, diplomats, generals and the knowledge that could be acquired through them in the form of technology transfer.
The race run for the leading position in libraries still remained a friendly game compared to the unceasing battle fought for thinking people and the rush of experts monks, students sent abroad to study Dedijer, Korean specialists for example were sought after so much that one aim of Japanese campaigns and pirate attacks was just to kidnap craftsmen.
Even during the war when the Japanese army invaded Korea, thousands of craftsmen were dragged to Japan.
When we recall the nearly year-old story, in which the luckier ones from among those countries that contended to give shelter to the scholars hounded out by Euergetes II from the library of Alexandria, were able to launch nothing less than a knowledge-avalanche, we cannot help but recognize the fact that the United States, the great winner of the current information society race, came into possession of an exorbitant intellectual capital in the shape of immigrant Europeans, a phenomenon it repeated in several waves: after the period of pioneers, during the great immigration waves in the last third of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, then throughout the migration of the scientific elite of the period between the two world wars.
The deliberate use of organized public education as an internal resource may date back a long time in history It was called into life and maintained by the need to train an administrative and military elite for a prolonged period, from ancient scrivener training to the hyper-specialized Sparta.
The real sign of the competition factor appears with the rivalry of the slowly secularizing universities In Japanese history, the political revolution that brought about the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate, inaugurating an era of major political, economic and social change known as the Meiji period gave the country compulsory education, which led to practically full-scale literacy by the end of the century. We can also mention the offensive development strategy of Hungarian public education in the last third of the 19th century which, for a long period, enjoyed the support of increasing budgetary subsidies, fixed in law by the parliament.
Among national programs for the accumulation of knowledge, Korea deserves a prominent position. Before the introduction of simple phonetic symbols Koreans used Japanese symbols. However, these could only become the treasure of a few privileged aristocrats, due to the amount of time needed to acquire them. The easy-to-learn-and-apply alphabetic system consisting of 24 letters, including 14 consonant and 10 vowel symbols, contributed largely to a high level of literacy among Korean people and to advanced printing later on while today it is also easily applicable in computer systems.
The above snapshot from cultural history convincingly justifies the argument that government-led efforts to generate competitive advantage show a wide variety of forms even in pre-information periods — and that such solutions will find and take their place with a subtle shade of flush on their cheeks in a new world economic environment. It is noteworthy that American universities took the lead only much after attaining a leading position in infrastructure indicators.
Prehistory: the Information Society emerges and becomes an issue of competition. By that time, as we now know, the number of people employed in information-related jobs in the United States had long surpassed the magic 50 percent. In addition to its leading position in perceived world rankings in wired telephony, radio and television, the United States had just begun to forge ahead in content industry mainly in the field of motion picture, animation, and rock music , and the competition takeover in the scientific research and university-based education industries was also close to coming to an end pushing the formerly dominant British-German continental axis off the track for good.
Then, from the middle of the 70s, the countries of the pursuing bunch started to regain consciousness, particularly Canada, Sweden and Australia, who found their way to the information society through the development of telecommunications which was highly important, due to their geographical capabilities, too involving an increase in penetration and advancement in the world of applications. And what about Europe? Yet, strategic planning for the information age only commenced at the actual beginning of a continent-wide joining of forces and, in particular, subsequent to the establishment of its substantial institutional structure in the middle of the 90s.
And even then, information technology had to wait until the mids to take its position among these programs. In the meantime, however, the revolution of personal computers, office automation and consumer electronics took place, and instead of the previously predicted tourism industry, it was information and communication technology ICT which by the end of the 80s had become the leading sector worldwide, enabling the slices of the technology-based business cake to swell — if not in equal proportion, at least permanently.
This global division of labour was defamed at the beginning of the 90s when it became clear that national information and communication industries would require global markets to achieve sustainable growth, together with all the consequences. Such expansion in size required an unprecedented concentration of capital, effective and economical entry into the market demanded a new standard of product and service integration, while flexible and unbridled expansion to external markets needed comprehensive liberalization and supranational regulation standards.
This explains the overwhelming wave of mergers and buying-ups we have experienced among both traditional and new players from the information, telecommunications and media industries since the beginning of the 90s. It was relatively easy to address the former challenge. Singapore is a transit country that has been one of the prominent harbors of intercontinental sea trade for at least years.
The foremost thing therefore was to win the competition among Asian seaports — but how? They should provide the most professional and fastest service. And they did. The optical readers of the deepwater Singapore harbor PSA, Port of Singapore Authority can receive the necessary information, even about approaching ships, and code their containers.
Chapter 8. Media and Technology – Introduction to Sociology – 1st Canadian Edition
Then, with the help of professional crane operators, they carry out trans-shipment precisely, and at lightning speed. The accelerated customs procedure significantly decrease the waiting period per ship, so more and more companies have found it worthwhile to choose Singapore as their logistic hub. IT report. Since that time, nearly fifty national-scale programs have been devised following more or less similar logic and considerations. The former model tends to be characteristic of Asia, while the latter, with all its advantages and shortcomings, is generally seen in Europe.
The European model, which relies for coordination on the market instead of government agencies with a monetary approach to information strategies, preserves traditional sector boundaries better, yet its comprehensive features are weaker Rodrigues, All things considered, there are a number of similar features even between information strategies of faraway countries.
Karvalics, The elaborateness and sophistication of different information strategies is extremely various. The bulk Canadian basic document is orbited by dozens of satellite-program booklets, the comprehensive Finnish strategy is accompanied by a similarly detailed strategy devised only for the educational system, while the Polish or Philippine basic documents consist of just a couple of pages.
Similarly, there is a wide variety of genres: beside the precisely elaborated Japanese plans, which break down the tasks into year-long phases, the Australian strategy is content with the mere description of four possible development scenarios. South Korea. Some countries Vietnam, Norway plan only for five years about until the millennium , while others, Malaysia and Japan, target and respectively. Essentially, national information infrastructure NII , including government information infrastructure, is the core aspect functioning as a development initiator to facilitate ideas and expectations on the social level.
Direct objectives are relatively simple: job creation, cost reduction, increased efficiency, better practices, greater publicity, satisfied citizens. All these mainly involve similar tasks, without priorities: standardization, integration, and implementation. In order to launch local experiments, pilot projects, governments principally rely on private capital and local resources Z. It is interesting to see if we can measure the success of information society strategies in the language of numbers, based on the readiness methodology of IDC www. If we examine a list based on identical standpoints the first Information Imperative Index, the updated data five years later which is called Information Society Index in , we will be able to draw conclusions through interpreting the changes see Table 6 with the rankings.
All the more so since the boom of the Internet and mobile telephony coincides exactly with that frame, so the selected period is not interrupted by any technological shifts. Table 6. While in only two countries belonged to the first category USA and Sweden , by it was That is to say, we skipped a class so that we fell back one place. In case of the top thirty countries we experience an average of points of growth in five years.
Meanwhile a point increase close to the average of the leading countries could even cause significant advances. The dynamic Singapore leaped ahead 5 places by additional points, Ireland and Holland jumped 4 places by and points respectively, while Japan and Taiwan in turn sprang 3 positions forward by and points.
Among the leaders it is interesting to note the 2-place advances of Belgium, Portugal and Finland by their approx. It is more than interesting that out of all countries Romania has come the longest way upwards to 31st place from 42nd with its point advance only to fall 3 places later in It seems to be obvious, that a real chance for a perceptible improvement implies a higher awareness rate, which in turn engenders an information-focused development program.
This accelerates IT-diffusion, and makes the density indicators higher and higher. What about the adequate strategies of the low-ranked countries? And the most worrying side of the problem is the possible follow-up of this competitive struggle: how do we imagine the post-information society race? During the most recent period, some North-Western European and South-East Asian states have emerged as top tier countries, while we can detect the serious advantage of the small countries. The slowdown of declination is expected to occur in the second part of the next five-year period, but the narrowing tendency of the divide may only commence during the cycle after that.
The Malaysian Case Ever since the theoretical theses of "the information society" were transferred into political programs, no more ambitious, no braver or more spectaculous conception of development, based on information technology, has been outlined than that of Malaysia with a population of 20 million. Malaysia provides a historical example of how to mix genuine ideas based on indigenous endowments and opportunities with the tasks of adaptation to the global trends, as well as how to adjust priorities on the way even more appropriate to the challenges of the moment.
Information technology policy development is an incremental process and therefore knowledge of its historical evolution is essential for understanding the decisional dynamics that lead to the current set of policies.
The "Malaysian case" is condensing the history of Information Society thinking. Evocating it's first period, the "ideological" parts of the Vision are extremely similar to the first "info-utopies" i. Masuda and others : human- centered, value-based, future-oriented, knowledge-focused. The "practical" arguments comes from the principles of international socio-economic competition, mirroring the second period in which the information strategy for the developed world was a primary resource of their competitive edge.
The "political message", the ultimate objective of the program is to become a fully developed country during the next 25 years as can be seen in the third period, where for the developing countries information strategy is a chance to make the quantum leap into the 21st century. Types, preliminaries, initiatives and future of the information strategies Typology under construction The comparative analysis of the information strategies is in its childhood.
In this chapter we wish to survey the possible aspects of investigation hoping that it will be feasible to make the proposed typologies and categories suitable for analysing comparisons. This must be carried on parallel with the monographic revelation of the information strategies of the countries considered typical like Malaysia, which we had taken as an example. Comprehensive, nation-wide basic document 2. Government-level coordination 3. Operative "office" for the "fulfilment" 4.
Scientific background institute, ad hoc committee, etc. Premature information strategies 2. National information strategies 3. Regional trials 4. NGO's Information Strategies 6. The new role of the cultural heritage 2. Quality of life in the center 4. Combination of "information" and "green" aspects 5. Accelerating global standardization 6. Bigger and bigger cooperating sets 7.
Turning back to the original meaning of Information Society 8. The dilemma is thus presented in this form: the information society, the economy with an axis of knowledge either provide a historical chance for the region, and then as the "literary scenario" of a rational attempt of outbreak national "visions" can be born, out of which a series of actions and programs may outgrow which can generate visions by well to the point, diligent work of generations.
Or, quite to the contrary, the earlier model of dropping behind will be replaced by new symmetries, through a kind of "information illiteracy" and infrastructural backwardness the region will become the outskirts of the shaping information-communication world system, losing for a long time even the hope for catching up and getting integrated.
Because the determining resources can be "producede, and the process, due to the information technology itself, takes place independently, simultaneously to the above processes "getting into the main stream" may become an available option. For nation-sates much more is at stake than for multinational companies, and the toughest lessons will present themselves on the level government and regional federations. The actual content of the social-economic structure change its ties to culture, its intensive knowledge character, intellectual resource and creativity demand, multicultural embeddedness that takes place at a pace of world history described by the label "information age" offers an opportunity never had before for the countries of the region which have out-of- date structure of industry in the process of being restructured but have a social-cultural base that is perfectly adjusted to the above challenge, and has been shaped during centuries in a characteristic way.
On the following pages the "deep structure" of these burdens will be analysed so that on the grounds of the lesson drawn from it one can gather the elements that point at the solution, development.
Burdens 1. Historically developed problems of structure and attitude As a recent burden of the one-sided, delayed development of the countries of the region that can be traced back to the middle ages, the almost forty years of political quarantine after second world war have caused, among other things, enormous damages in terms of information technology. While in Hungary and elsewhere the "country of iron and steel" was being built, in developed regions the revolution of chips was prepared. In this part of Europe even in the eighties the same kind of one-sided information structure was developed as in the fifties: the "country of iron and steel" was successfully reproduced in information technology mystical hardware dependency; instead of customer oriented thinking electric engineering and programmer dominance in information technology training.
When the region, which has become again independent and democratic, started to run after the developed world that served as an example from the end of the eighties with a degree turn, the unreasonably fast copying of a model produced several negative symptoms. The way of thinking became basically requisite oriented: it paid attention to what belonged to a model pattern and did not care about what it could make use of it, how it could live with all that which the model could offer. By drawing a rough comparison that this period produced a special "information technology imprinting": the fluffy countries of the region ran right after whatever they happened to catch sight of.
Bitter stories tell us about, for example, the times of the first great computerisation wave when the companies in the spirit of up-to-datedness and "developed patterns" built up computer parks with huge investments without organising them on any actual function. Their equipment of great value which quickly became depreciated, were, of course, left unused and get dusted on the shelves of warehouses while work was carried on under traditional circumstances. During this the countries of the region did not even have the chance to develop any of the information technology basic industries with enormous initial capital demand in the hope of success although there must have been some products that could be launched in the market with advantages due to patents and solutions.
Thus the first huge wave of the information technology revolution, "the preparation period" was not able to build a track for catching up neither in terms of development, nor in terms of manufacturing, nor making technology available for the masses in spite of the fact that some major central programs, the Soviet computer development, the Hungarian and Bulgarian school PC action, the "Infostrada project" in Poland Targowski, that was left in torso, due to political reasons, in their own time could be described as up-to-date actions keeping pace with the world.
The eight years of two election cycles have not been enough that simultaneously with changing political frameworks and developing forums of plural public essential transformation would happen in the basic structure of the information household. Burdens 2. This was, however, not primarily based upon any conscious or instinctive programs of the super powers that would adjust the country into a new international distribution of labour and while doing that would shape these countries in accordance with their own image, and the multinational companies that behaved more and more like them, as many people say, but the merciless success of the logic of the market free competition and measuring the revenue producing capability instead of the budget "breast".
By the political change of regime the redistributive incubator of culture was terminated, but simultaneously to becoming ideology free no new vital sources of intellectual reproduction have developed. Some minor successes cannot hide the fact that the tendency is continuing, culture is getting into worse and worse position, and some sectors are fighting to death for their survival. Burdens 3. Hardships of financing grand scale programs Due to the high budget deficit in the financing debate on overall, long term program packages with prospect, because of the problem of time discounting and crisis management syndrome it is always the strategy like views that become losers: their presenters, in almost every case, have to face phrases like "why should we have world standard information technique when in lots of schools they don't even afford having chalks".
Starting points for the program of catching up The elements of chance It has been described how the basic situation, inadequate from three aspects, has evolved which constitutes the starting point for searching for the way out in Eastern Europe and Hungary. There is, however, with these burdens a real chance for getting out from one- sidedness.
The following of the model has not only dark sides but favourable effects as well: the EU compliance regulation; information technology and media acts elaborated on the grounds of "Western" patterns; ceased COCOM limitations; development of networks and data banks forced by co-operation; increasing the speed of swapping of specialists; the showing up of telecom giants, etc. Because one phase of development has been almost entirely left out, due to the quickening cycles of information technology, by proper efforts, saving the costs of transitions and experiments right form the outset the most up-to-date systems can be installed, and through that there is a possibility to decrease technological gap, to launch offensive programs.
The production structure of economic model in the industrial age strictly determined by natural conditions and raw material sources are getting replaced by the conditions of the information age which are not tied to a specific space and use human knowledge as resources. In the world of the most up-to-date technologies it is no longer money but "human infrastructure" that constitutes bottleneck.
The attitudes, however, can be altered under conditions of a basically transforming world, and it is the new information technology culture that may be of necessary help. No matter how negative an actor the over weight state inherited from history can be in the game between Power and Citizens, for lack of concentrated national capital that wants to get to the information technology market the only way for planned and strategic informatisation is constituted by central government programs and resources allocated to interest that have evolved out of that.
Anything that is not put on the Net, will be less and less available and recognisable, practically will be sooner or later lost. In addition to the successful "mobilisation" of the civil sphere, all that can become a perfect means of making minor national identities damaged in several points and burdened with several historical burdens up-to-date.
Subject to the complexity and type of the tasks identified and undertaken, various governments in Eastern Europe have created widely different space of movement. Therefore it is not "universal" constructions but especially target oriented and specialised solutions that can facilitate their work with support coming either from inside or outside.
Bibliography of the History of Information Science and Technology
Lyon, Table 7. In the event of lack of strategy through providing information, involvement in the work of professional organisations and political forums, financing studies In the event of weak strategies by showing possibilities to cut risk factors, experience cumulated elsewhere and prospects that can be rationally looked at, financing "method exchange", "inventory" type professional materials.
In the event of complete strategies by quality control, audit of systems realised, support provided for replacing older systems, solutions that facilitate extension of mass utilisation of key ICT tools. The self motion of civil society The Internet as the new basic public utility of organising life through spreading of suppliedness is heading for "detonation" in Eastern Europe Skilling, Paletz et al.
Behind the replacement of the one channel public by the pressure that have created new "virtual" spaces for public life the figure of the citizen, a community element missed for a long time has been outlined. It is continuously and systematically done chores that, after all, stands, at the point of intersection of bottom-up and top-down attempts, performed in order to do away with inequalities between chances and throughout that the genuine content of democracy, and a strong civil society will be integrated into related processes launched as global tendencies.
The key areas of building "information society" Schools and education put into focus Because the success of application is subject to the knowledge embodied in the people who realise applications or work with systems, mass knowledge production is highlighted more and more as a problem of "information technology", connecting education into planning in terms of technology. At the middle of the eighties the strategic development of the education system was urged more as a modernisation chance of the third world, then at the beginning of the nineties the governments of the countries of the centre declared, almost at the same time, their government programs that up to a given time their national educational achievement is to become the first on the Continent or in the world.
Some people have gone so far that the struggle between educational systems was discussed by them as the modern metamorphosis of the economic struggle between capitalist nation-states, "brain drain" as the economic metamorphosis of international economic struggle for raw materials Crawford, Learn more Ida Susser, ed. Learn more Nico Cloete and Johan Muller, eds. Learn more Jochen Steinbicker. Learn more Fernando Calderon, ed. Learn more Felix Stalder. Learn more Mayte Pascual. Geraldine Pfiegler. David Bell. Philip N. Polity Press, Learn More. Learn more. Another Life is Possible.
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